A large number of questions arise when buying a lathe machine, like its uses, price, types, etc. Mentioned below are a few of the questions for getting a better understanding of a Lathe machine.
1) What is a Lathe?
A lathe machine is a construction tool that rotates the piece to be machined for shaping, cutting, drilling, facing, knurling, turning, and deformation. The primary purpose of the lathe is to shape the wood or metal by removing unwanted parts. It can also be used to make other machines parts and tools.
2) What is the working principle of a Lathe machine?
The lathe is the most versatile and resourceful machine tool of metal. The working principle of the lathe is to rotate the piece on a static cutting tool. Its work is supported by the following operations.
- Attach the piece to machine on a lathe.
- Rotate it while pushing it towards the cutting tool.
The rotation of the workpiece helps in giving it a proper shape with speed.
3) What are the different parts of the Lathe machine?
Lathes are complicated machines having many parts attached to them. Primary parts of the lathe machine are headstock, bed, spindles, motor, tool rest, and tailstock.
Bed of lathe holds together all its components. It also helps in determining the size of the workpiece that can be processed on it. Distance between the bed and main spindle helps in determining the diameter of the piece to be machined.
Headstock holds the rotating workpiece. It is always on the left side Piece to be machined is attached to the tailstock. The tailstock is always on the right side of the machine.
Lathe uses an electric drive motor, but a hydraulic motor can also be used. The motor is attached below the bed, near the headstock Tool rest is used to adjust rotation and height. Spindles help in fitting different parts. Thus, the primary spindle is threaded and hollow. Some attachments are faceplates centers and chucks.
4) What are the different types of lathe?
Various types of lathe machines are available in the market, some of the few are explained below.
Speed Lathe-In this, the spindle rotates at a very high speed thus getting its name speed lathe. These are used in the production of heavy-duty parts for polishing, metal spinning, woodturning, centering, etc.
Engine Lathe or Centre Lathe-This is the most widely used lathe machine. It can be used for grooving, threading, turning, end face, knurling. Engine lathe can cut tools in both lateral and longitudinal directions.
Capstan and turret lathe machine-Capstan and turret lathes can perform a variety of operations. These are used where production in large volumes is required. These are very simple to use and do not require much skill.
Toolroom lathe machine-Toolroom lathe machine is similar to the engine lathe, only a smaller bed is mounted on it, for higher accuracy and precision.
Bench lathe machine-Bench lathe is very small in size. It is used to provide accuracy so used for small works. Its attachments are similar to those of other large lathe machines.
CNC lathe machine-CNC lathe uses computers to control the operation of the machine. It is used for a large volume of production with speed and accuracy. At present, these are the most advanced lathes available.
5) Variety of uses of lathe machinery?
Lathes are known as the”mother of machining tools,”. These can perform a variety of operations such as drilling, grooving, recessing, forming, boring, shaping, knurling, cutting, turning, sanding, deformation, chamfering, and tapping.
Lathes are very precise to work with. Therefore they are the most preferred machines for shaping and cutting both metal and wood.
6) What factors determine the price of lathe?
While buying lathe following points should be considered.
Size-It plays a major role as it increases or decreases the price of the machine. Smaller ones are cheaper than larger ones.
Functions-More amounts of operation it could perform more will be its price.
Production-If a lathe can operate on a large volume, it will directly affect its price.
All these factors play a major role when a person or a company considers working with a lathe machine. This knowledge helps in making proper decisions.